Posted April 26, 2018
Polygraph examiners use a specialized machine that records and reports a person’s physiological activities while being asked a series of questions. A contemporary computerized polygraph machine conducts readings on blood pressure, respiration, and sweating. These physiological activities increase when the test subject lies.
How the polygraph equipment works
The so-called “lie detector machine” no longer uses the quivering needles that scribble across paper being scrolling through the device. Instead, software with complex algorithms receive the data and display results on a dashboard display:
- Respiration: The lie detector expert places rubber tubes around the subject’s chest and abdomen. The tubes report electronic signals as the subject’s chest and stomach muscles expand.
- Blood Pressure : As blood pressure and heart rate increase, any change sends data to the software.
- Sweating: The lie detector examiner will attach a clip to subject’s fingertips. These galvanometers sense stress-induced perspiration.
What to expect in a polygraph pre-test
A lie detector expert will start with a pre-test. The polygraph examiner and examinee have paperwork to complete. The examiner explains the testing process in detail and asks a few questions to establish some baselines.
The lie detector examiner has information about you in advance and may use that to phrase some preliminary questions. The tester may ask obvious questions, like “Are you standing up?” or “Is it raining out?” The idea is to chart the responses to questions that have nothing to do with truth or deception related to the key issues. In fact, the examiner may ask you to lie, so the machine can calibrate the response.
It’s not the expert’s objective to interpret your responses but to accumulate your physiological activities while answering. The polygraph examiner will stop the test if the subject is so nervous from the beginning that testing does not record well. Likewise, if the test subject is so deceptive from the very beginning, the examiner will stop. Of course, failure to complete the test is not in your favor.
What to expect during the polygraph test
The entire process takes as long as four hours. But, there are breaks in between consecutive testing periods.
Following the pre-test, the examiner will begin a chart collection phase. The examiner and subject will work alone in a quiet room to eliminate distractions. The lie detector administrator will repeat some questions asked earlier.
Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA) prohibits lie detector experts from asking questions about:
- Religious beliefs or affiliations
- Beliefs or opinions regarding racial matters
- Political beliefs or affiliations
- Beliefs, affiliations or lawful activities regarding unions or labor organizations
- Sexual preferences or activities
The exam questions will vary depending on the purpose of the exam. For example, if it the test is required for employment as a police officer, the questions will differ from those related to a crime. But, the following questions are typical of the questioning structure:
- Is your name Phillip?
- Are you really 27 years old?
- Were you born in 1988?
- Is today Tuesday?
- Do you live in Jersey City?
- Do you have a mortgage with Wells Fargo?
Since the examiner knows the answers to these questions, the chart of physiological activities will verify or contradict what is known. Where there is a discrepancy, the lie detector examiner may ask the subject to explain in a post-test interview.
Your lie detector test wraps up
An early study published at Case Western University explained, “The polygraph technique is based upon two premises. First, psychological stress caused by the fear of detection will be manifested by involuntary physiological responses, and second, a polygraph examiner, based on these responses, can detect deception.”
The theory has not changed. The technology and training used by lie detector experts improve regularly. In the words of polygraph expert Jack Trimarco, “What’s buried inside one’s mind reveals the true face of the person and that’s what really matters.”
Posted April 23, 2018
Taking a polygraph test is no laughing matter. You don’t take one for kicks. The most common reasons to test are as a part of an investigation or as part of a security clearance. Both situtations require your full cooperation and complete seriousness.
- Specific investigation: A polygraph test is a forensic tool. It can help authorities and attorneys. Federal, state, and city officials regularly use polygraph tests as part of a criminal investigation.
Law enforcement agencies are not likely to base their entire investigation or conclusion on polygraph results. But, polygraph testing can indicate the trustworthiness of a suspect or witness.
Even the victim of a crime may be asked to take a polygraph test. The results may confirm the victim’s account of the incident. Testing the victim may confirm the victim’s version; it might indicate that the defendant has been wrongfully charged, or it may help prosecutors choose their approach to the trial.
Sometimes, financial auditors or corporate investigators will use polygraph tests to investigate white collar crime, fraud, and internal corporate crime. Polygraph results might confirm or correct the direction of the investigation.
- Routine screening: Most law enforcement agencies — state or local police, the FBI, Homeland Security, the U.S. Secret Service, the CIA and more — will use polygraph tests to screen prospective hires. Personal integrity is crucial to such careers and many methods are used to evaluate a prospective candidate.
In addition to pre-hire screening, security agencies may use polygraph exams as an integral part of maintaining their ongoing intelligence duties.
So, should I take a polygraph examination?
Ultimately, the decision is up to you. If the polygraph presents no threat to you, you should have few concerns. But, you need and deserve full disclosure on how the polygraph test will be run and how its results will be used.
Each exam method and purpose have specific features, characteristics, and impacts. So, when you consider taking a polygraph examination, you should know the type of exam that will be administered.
You also must know how the test results will impact your personal circumstances. Will it secure a job appointment or promotion, or could it disqualify your application? Will it discredit your testimony, or will it confirm your version?
The results can be career and life-changing, so you must know before you agree to the examination. You have a right and duty to assess the polygraph process and how the results will be used.
Of course, that means you should have some confidence in your ability and willingness to be thorough and truthful.
The American Polygraph Association (APA) model policy asserts:
- “Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD), or polygraph testing, should be regarded as a decision-support tool intended to add incremental validity to risk assessment and risk-management efforts surrounding the evaluation and selection of law-enforcement and other public-service applicants.”
- “Except as provided by law, polygraph test information and results should be kept confidential within the screening process; to be used exclusively to assist in applicant selection. Absent a legal obligation and waiver to report polygraph examination information, it should be treated with the utmost respect in regard to confidentiality.”
- Taking a polygraph test depends on your informed decision and voluntary agreement following “An explanation of polygraph testing principles, including the accepted cognitive, emotional and behavioral bases for responses to polygraph test questions. Sufficient time must be spent to ensure the examinee understands the process and the expectation for complete cooperation.”
Consider the situation
- You are a suspect or person of interest in a crime. If you have concealed your involvement, polygraph expert Jack Trimarco warns, “your deception will almost certainly be identified.” So, whether or not you have reason to worry, you should consult with your attorney first.
- Your own attorney may recommend the polygraph examination. Your lawyer may have confidence enough in your testing outcome that it can help your defense. But, you must still confirm the testing procedure and results processing.
- A polygraph exam used for employment screening must meet APA standards and significant compliance requirements like those published by the Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA), Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
If you volunteer for a polygraph exam, you must remain alert and involved in the 3-4 hours required. You should eat a good meal, secure a good night’s sleep, and avoid stimulants that would affect your pulse, blood pressure, and respiration. You should take your regular prescribed mediation and disclose the meds and dosage to the examiner.
The polygraph testing procedures are built to tolerate some level of inevitable anxiety and nervousness. But, most test subjects report becoming more comfortable as the test proceeds.
So, unless you have reason to fear the outcomes, you should willingly take a polygraph test with full disclosure and your attorney’s guidance.
Posted April 20, 2018
Employers, investigators, and even therapists use polygraph tests. Lawyers who want to provide the absolute best defense for their clients will use them, too.
Some attorneys will test their own clients while others use these tests to verify statements made by witnesses and other parties. But, if polygraph results are not admissible as evidence in court, testing may waste time and money.
Is a polygraph test reliable and valid?
In an extraordinarily objective and thorough study of forensic polygraph administration, the American Polygraph Association produced the Meta-Analytic Survey of Criterion Accuracy of Validated Polygraph Techniques (2011).
The study concluded:
- Event-specific (single issue) diagnostic testing produced an aggregated decision accuracy of 89% (confidence interval of 83% - 95%), with an estimated inconclusive rate of 11%.
- Where multiple issues were encompassed by the relevant questions produced an aggregated decision accuracy of 85% (confidence interval 77% - 93%) with an inconclusive rate of 13%.
- And, the combination of all validated PDD techniques, excluding outlier results, produced a decision accuracy of 87% (confidence interval 80% - 94%) with an inconclusive rate of 13%.
Courts are interested in such evidence of testing reliability and validity.
Is a polygraph exam admissible as evidence?
Despite myths to the contrary, polygraphs may be admissible as evidence in court in the U.S. The U.S. Department of Justice’s advisory #262 to the Offices of United States Attorneys does not provide clarity to the question. But, it does assert, “Neither the United States Code nor the Federal Rules of Evidence have a specific provision concerning the admissibility of polygraph examination results.”
The advisory details how military courts, circuit courts, and other courts have defined and redefined the criteria for testing and presentation of results. The result is that U.S. courts admit polygraph test results on a case-by-case basis. The criteria are demanding and complex, but courts do admit polygraph results as relevant evidence.
If there is a standard approach, the courts hold the polygraph test to the same standards it uses to assess the value of any scientific evidence. With varying exceptions, these states accept the use of polygraphs: Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
Although polygraph results are often used in investigations, plea bargains, and mandatory mediation sessions , it can be difficult to navigate all the rules and regulations surrounding their use in U.S. courts.
Regardless of your interest in a case, it's important to hire an examiner who is not only highly qualified to give these tests but also understands exactly how and when they should be used. With over twenty-five years of law enforcement experience and thousands of polygraph examinations successfully completed, Jack Trimarco knows how to effectively administer a polygraph examination to in manner appropriate for potential use as evidence in a court.
Posted April 17, 2018
People who watch a lot of television have a very limited understanding of the polygraph exams. They see the testing in bits and pieces of on law and order shows.
People forget those are shows are fictionals. What you see is a long way from the way polygraph tests are administered and read. What they call a “lie detector” is misleading according to the American Psychological Association.
So, what is a polygraph?
A polygraph administrator attaches sensors that measure the test subject’s physiological responses while being asked a series of questions.
The sensors typically measure the subject’s:
- Breathing rate
- Blood Pressure
- Arm and Leg Movements
And, contemporary polygraph machines use sophisticated sensors to record, store, and transmit data.
How does the test go?
The test is preceded by a “practice session” to establish a baseline or benchmark of the subject’s physiological status at a calm state.
A professional polygraph administrator then asks some relevant questions to see if physiological responses are recording. When the test starts, the administrator may ask control questions, relevant questions, or multiple-choice questions.
The results reveal the subject’s physiological responses. But, it takes a professional like Jack Trimarco to study the data for evidence that the responses are indicative of the emotional connection in moments of deception.
But, what about false positives?
It takes a test professional to identify “false positives,” indications that a person lied when they didn’t or didn’t lie when they did.
The following can contribute to false positives:
- Inebriants like tobacco, alcohol, and drugs will affect a subject’s responses. They may raise or lower blood pressure, increase or lower heart rate, and alter the pulse.
- Blood Pressure may or may not affect the testing. If the pressure is under management, it should remain consistent throughout the test. But, the tester must know the situation.
- Anxiety will record unfavorably. Test anxiety usually shows up as physiological responses that increase as testing proceeds and that may produce a false positive.
- Fatigue: Lack of sleep can skew physiological responses.
ABC News reported, “’Proponents will say the test is about 90 percent accurate. Critics will say it's about 70 percent accurate,’ said Frank Horvath of the American Polygraph Association.” But, those errors do not invalidate the process in the hands of a qualified, experienced, and certified polygraph administrator.
Polygraph machines do not lie. They record responses with accuracy. The machine runs a diagnostic test of those responses. What the results mean presents the challenge for the polygraph administrator.
Accuracy can differ from reliability. Many tests result in a “yes or no” conclusion. The results may have a range of scores. For instance, a blood test reports you have high cholesterol. An eye examination says you need glasses. The driving test says you may or may not drive.
The polygraph does not report that the subject lied or did not lie. It will, instead, report something like “significant response,” “no significant response,” or “inconclusive.” And, the most accomplished testers understand that false positives can be a factor in test conclusions:
- A False Positive Index (FPI) lists the ratio of false positives to true positives.
- A Positive Predictive Value (PPV) notes the probability that a test subject with a deceptive polygraph result is, in fact, being deceptive.
Today’s polygraph machines are sophisticated technologically. Given their purpose to record signs of human physiological responses, they do a very good job. Given the input and testing protocol, the machine’s results are accurate.
Their reliability as a “true” index of the test subject’s honesty or dishonesty is largely a matter of expert reading and interpretation. Testers know there is the potential for false positives and for attempts to interfere with the testing. But, their expertise can deliver valuable and useful results.
What’s buried inside one’s mind reveals the true face of the person and that’s what really matters. We live in a plastic world where everything can be faked with smiles and tears, and one is usually unable to see the real side of the story.
Are you ready for the real life’s moment of truth? Finding the truth that’s absolutely raw to the core and without any sugar coat.
We all are looking for some answers to doubts or feeling of suspicion in our mind. Nurturing and keeping this weed of uncertainty will eventually corrupt the whole system. And, it’s absolutely not the healthy way to live.
How can Jack Trimarco help?
Jack Trimarco isa professional polygraph examiner with experience gained overmore than two and half decades. He has successfully conducted over 3,500 tests that are 100% unbiased by following proper standards for length of time, technique, question formulation, comparison question setting and all the other protocols required for an excellent polygraph exam.
Jack Trimarcousesthe latest top-notch scientific equipment, like LX4000 computer polygraph system. Itconsolidates and analyzes even the slightest psychological change that occurs during the polygraph test. It then becomes extremely difficult to hide the truthby confusing it with a lie. Hence, the truth delivered.
Find out what’s real with Jack Trimarco Polygraph Services!!
Jack Trimarco: Bringing Truth tothe Table
Jack Trimarcoworked for 21 years as a Special Agent at the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). During his employment he successfully participated in multiple significant cases like Oklahoma City Bombing, Cordoba vs. the United States, a high-profile professional tennis referee murder case, the "Unabomber" investigation and many more.
He has professional certification from The American Polygraph Association, The California Polygraph Examiners, National Association of Legal Investigation (NALI) and other professional organizations. He received the prestigious National Holly Canty Memorial Awardin 2010 from the American Association of Police Polygraphists and the Distinguished Service Award in 2013 and 2014.
Find the truth now!
If you are looking for true answers to all your questions then make sure to reach us as soon as possible. We deliver the truth.
“Polygraph examination”often referred to as “lie detector test” uses specialized technology to measure and simultaneously record specific physiological changes, while the subject is asked set of relevant questions. Lie detector tests arewell-known cultural icon, used in everything from high-profile investigations to routine business security screenings. For many people, lie detector exams are something affiliated withprivate investigation agencies, or on TV or in the movies, to uncover the truth. However, professional polygraph servicesare available to assist anyone who needs to findthe truth of almost situation.
These areas are where polygraph servicescan be used:
- Infidelity (adultery)
- Personal/business theft
- Family issues
- Pre-employment screening
- Criminal investigations and more
Are you anxious about the thought of “Am I being lied to?” No need to worry. Jack Trimarco polygraph Services will discover the truth with their expertise and high professional standards.
How do these lie detector tests reveal the truth? Jack Trimarco, an experienced polygraph examiner with more than 25 years of experience, uses the LX4000 computer polygraph system to measure, record, store and analyze physiological changes during a polygraph examination.Jack Trimarco Polygraph Services follows the highestprofessional standards for question formulation, recording techniques and other examination protocols while conducting the polygraph exam.
Jack Trimarcohas an elite background in interrogation and criminal profiling. He has worked with and trained F.B.I. agents, detectives, special agents and other law enforcement professional across the country. He can apply all his skills to get the truth thru a lie detector test.
If you need to know the truth about a situation you may be considering the use of a polygraph test, also commonly known as a "lie detector test". These tests are a great way to get to the truth but administering a polygraph alone isn't enough. There are many services out there, but it isn't always as simple as just giving someone the test. Can a person fail a lie detector test due to high blood pressure? What if they're just a nervous person in general? Can a habitual liar beat a polygraph test? These are important questions and that's why you need an examiner that has the background and experience to properly analyze test results.
Jack Trimarco Has Over Two Decades of Experience
He is an internationally known and highly experienced forensic psycho-physiologist, otherwise known as a polygraph examiner. For nearly 21 years, he served as a Special Agent for the F.B.I. and he also served as the Inspector General for the United States Department of Energy Polygraph Program between 2000 and 2002. He has given over 3,500 tests throughout the world and this experience gives him the ability to not only properly administer these tests but to correctly analyze the results as well.
His expertise has helped in a number of high profile cases including the Oklahoma City Bombing, the "Unabomber" case, and the 1993 World Trade Center Bombing.
He has a high degree of respect and credibility with state and federal attorneys in both criminal and civil cases. As an expert, he's proven his expertise and has certifications from several respected organizations including the American Polygraph Association, the California Polygraph Examiners, and the California Association of Legal Investigation.
He's also worked with the famous F.B.I. psychological profiler and author, John Douglas, on many high profile cases.
Polygraphs Aren't Just For Law Enforcement
Law enforcement officials are not the only people that have benefited from his years of experience. He is also an examiner for the Dr. Phil Show where he helps people and families uncover the truth.
What someone is thinking is a huge indicator of that person's true character. This is why the truth is so important. We place a high value on the truth because it's so important in our world. But unfortunately, those of us that have a lifestyle dedicated to lying and deceit are often very good at hiding their innermost thoughts and feelings. This is why it's so important to have a polygraph done by an expert, and you would be hard-pressed to find anyone with more expertise than Jack Trimarco.
How Can Jack Trimarco Help You?
He is not only a highly skilled examiner, but he also conducts his tests in a 100% unbiased manner. He knows how to ask questions that will lead to the truth without leading the person one way or another. He also uses the latest and best scientific equipment, like the LX4000 polygraph system.
It's so important to use the best equipment and techniques due to the fact that the truth can affect so much in our lives. Jack Trimarco knows the importance of helping people reveal the truth and he's more than happy to help with several types of situations including personal or business theft, infidelity or adultery, family problems, pre-employment screening, criminal investigations, and more. Whatever your concern is, he can help you.
If you need to know the truth and you're looking for a respected, honest, experienced professional that can help you find the answers once and for all contact Jack Trimarco.